Nutrition Rules: Daily Calorie Needs, Energy Balance

First of all, let’s take a look at what a calorie is – a unit of energy that keeps a person alive. When there is too much of this energy, it is stored in fat masses. It happens that the energy received is not enough for life support, in which case the body takes energy from adipose tissue.

This is how you lose weight.

Any physical or mental activity requires energy, so calculating the daily calorie intake for a woman or man should take into account not only gender, weight, but also lifestyle.

How many calories you need to consume per day

Use the calorie calculator to calculate your daily calorie intake.

Every day we spend energy on metabolism (resting metabolism) and on movement (physical activity). Schematically, it looks like this:

Energy = E of basal metabolism + E of physical activity

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the energy required for the body’s vital functions (metabolism) without physical activity. The basal metabolic rate is a value that depends on the gender, weight, height and age of the person.

The taller a person is, and the more weight they have, the more energy they need to metabolize, and the higher their basal metabolic rate. Conversely, shorter, thinner people will have a lower basal metabolic rate.

Basal Metabolic Rate = Basal Metabolic Rate can be calculated using the Harris-Benedict formula, which was refined by Rose and Shizgal in 1984.

Basal metabolic rate for men

= 88.362 + (13.397 * weight, kg) + (4.799 * height, cm) – (5.677 * age, years)

Basal metabolic rate for women

= 447.593 + (9.247 * weight, kg) + (3.098 * height, cm) – (4.330 * age, years) For example, a woman weighing 70 kg, 170 cm tall, 28 years old, needs for basic metabolism (basic metabolism) = 447.593 + (9.247 * 70) + (3.098 * 170) – (4.330 * 28) = 447.593 + 647.29 + 526.66-121.24 = 1500.303 kcal

A physically inactive person spends 60-70% of their daily energy on basal metabolism, and the remaining 30-40% on physical activity.

How to calculate the total amount of energy consumed by the body per day
Recall that total energy is the sum of the energy of the basic metabolism (or basal metabolic rate) and the energy used for movement (physical activity).

To calculate the total energy expenditure taking into account physical activity, there is a Physical Activity Index

What is physical activity ratio (PA)?

Physical Activity Ratio (PAR) = Physical Activity Level (PAL) is the ratio of total energy expenditure at a certain level of physical activity to the value of basal metabolic rate, or, more simply, the value of total energy expended divided by basal metabolic rate.

The more intense the physical activity, the higher the physical activity level.

  1. People who move very little have a CFA of 1.2. For them, the total energy expended by the body will be calculated: Ezag=BRM*1.2.
  2. People who do light exercise 1-3 days a week have a CFA of 1.375. So the formula is: Ezag=BRM*1.375.
  3. People who do moderate exercise, namely 3-5 days a week, have a CFA of 1.55. The formula for the calculation: Ezag=BRM*1.55.
  4. People who do heavy exercise 6-7 days a week have a CFA of 1.725. Formula for calculation: Ezag=BRM*1.725.
  5. People who do very heavy exercise twice a day or workers with heavy physical activity have a CFA of 1.9. Accordingly, the formula for calculation: Ezag = BMR*1.9.

So, to calculate the total amount of energy expended per day, you need to multiply the basal metabolic rate according to age, gender and weight (Basal Metabolic Rate) by the physical activity coefficient according to the physical activity group (Physical Activity Level).

What is energy balance? And when will I lose weight?

Energy balance is the difference between the energy taken in by the body and the energy expended by the body.

Equilibrium in the energy balance is when the energy received from food is equal to the energy expended by the body. In this situation, weight remains stable.

Accordingly, a positive energy balance is when the energy received from the food consumed is greater than the energy needed for the body’s vital functions. In a state of positive energy balance, a person gains extra pounds.

A negative energy balance is when less energy is received than the body expends.

To lose weight, you need to create a negative energy balance.

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Written by Bella Adams

I'm a professionally-trained, executive chef with over ten years in Restaurant Culinary and hospitality management. Experienced in specialized diets, including Vegetarian, Vegan, Raw foods, whole food, plant-based, allergy-friendly, farm-to-table, and more. Outside of the kitchen, I write about lifestyle factors that impact well-being.

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